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Mapped: Energy Consumption Per Capita Around the World

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map of energy consumption per capita by country

Mapping Global Energy Consumption Per Capita

In the four decades since 1980, global energy consumption doubled from 77 trillion kilowatt-hours (kWh) to nearly 155 trillion kWh.

But despite soaring energy demand from emerging economies, energy consumption per person only grew by around 14%.

So, which countries consume the most energy per capita today?

The above infographic maps global per capita energy consumption in 2020 using data from Our World in Data. Energy consumption includes electricity, transport, and heating.

The Energy Consumption Leaderboard

The top 10 countries by energy consumption per capita are relatively wealthy and heavily industrialized.

CountryYear of dataEnergy consumption per capita (kWh)
Iceland2020167,175
Qatar2020165,044
Singapore2020162,192
Bahrain2019145,193
Trinidad and Tobago2020123,800
Brunei2019121,637
United Arab Emirates2020117,686
Canada2020100,310
Norway202098,879
Kuwait202098,021
United States Virgin Islands201995,010
Malta201991,685
Saudi Arabia202084,262
Faeroe Islands201980,177
New Caledonia201978,606
Oman202074,514
United States202073,677
Turkmenistan202064,639
Saint Pierre and Miquelon201964,130
South Korea202063,865
Luxembourg202063,726
Greenland201962,156
Europe202028,617
European Union (27)202034,772
Falkland Islands201961,362
Australia202060,660
Sweden202060,494
Taiwan202056,199
Finland202054,962
Netherlands202054,673
Russia202053,895
Belgium202052,510
Bermuda201951,713
Cayman Islands201951,435
Aruba201951,179
New Zealand202048,414
Seychelles201947,768
Kazakhstan202045,950
Guam201944,771
Austria202042,676
Bahamas201941,170
Germany202040,153
Czechia202039,883
Iran202039,785
Estonia202039,024
Japan202037,403
France202037,041
Slovenia202035,850
Malaysia202035,296
Ireland202034,600
Switzerland202034,597
Hong Kong202034,430
Israel202033,625
Slovakia202031,697
Antigua and Barbuda201931,385
Puerto Rico201929,546
Spain202029,541
Poland202029,453
Bhutan201929,338
Panama201928,998
Belarus202028,871
Denmark202028,314
United Kingdom202028,211
China202028,072
Cook Islands201927,921
Hungary202027,834
Bulgaria202027,582
Montserrat201927,374
Italy202026,936
Greece202026,659
American Samoa201926,024
Libya201925,864
Turks and Caicos Islands201925,775
Portugal202025,405
Lithuania202025,365
Nauru201924,818
Martinique201924,598
Barbados201924,537
Mongolia201924,338
Suriname201924,136
Macao201923,858
British Virgin Islands201923,486
Cyprus202023,358
Chile202023,348
Mauritius201923,278
Latvia201923,051
South Africa202022,959
Serbia201922,784
Montenegro201922,650
Croatia202022,105
Guadeloupe201921,483
Laos201921,449
Latvia202021,370
Saint Kitts and Nevis201921,074
Bosnia and Herzegovina201921,068
Ukraine202021,048
Turkey202020,716
Thailand202020,370
Niue201919,975
Argentina202019,352
Romania202019,220
Georgia201918,547
Paraguay201918,398
Maldives201917,493
Azerbaijan202017,037
French Polynesia201916,894
Equatorial Guinea201916,880
French Guiana201916,526
Reunion201915,931
Brazil202015,692
Lebanon201915,614
Uzbekistan202015,542
Armenia201915,538
Saint Lucia201914,909
Jamaica201914,563
Algeria202014,561
Guyana201914,246
Iraq202014,246
Venezuela202014,082
Mexico202013,952
North Macedonia202013,582
Costa Rica201913,159
Vietnam202011,669
Grenada201911,661
Jordan201911,484
Dominican Republic201911,435
Albania201911,266
Dominica201910,994
Ecuador202010,158
Botswana20199,992
Egypt20209,899
Colombia20209,648
Fiji20199,642
Cuba20199,608
Belize20199,247
Saint Helena20198,871
Namibia20198,738
Peru20208,400
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines20198,154
Tajikistan20198,102
Samoa20197,959
Bolivia20197,940
Gabon20197,850
Cape Verde20197,776
Indonesia20207,753
Syria20197,325
El Salvador20197,070
Tonga20196,694
Morocco20206,607
India20206,438
Micronesia20196,334
Honduras20195,803
Guatemala20195,689
Eswatini20195,678
Congo20194,735
Philippines20204,626
Nicaragua20194,372
Pakistan20204,369
Sri Lanka20204,237
Cambodia20193,994
Palestine20193,991
Mauritania20193,976
Africa20203,851
North Korea20193,696
Angola20193,430
Sao Tome and Principe20193,412
Zambia20193,398
Zimbabwe20193,375
Papua New Guinea20193,316
Ghana20193,294
Vanuatu20193,188
Myanmar20193,130
Kiribati20192,739
Senegal20192,703
Bangladesh20202,685
Djibouti20192,598
Benin20192,483
Nigeria20192,481
Cote d'Ivoire20192,417
Mozambique20192,377
Sudan20192,360
Lesotho20192,293
Solomon Islands20192,038
Western Sahara20191,868
Kenya20191,849
Cameroon20191,818
Timor20191,682
Yemen20191,598
Comoros20191,567
Nepal20191,530
Mali20191,289
Guinea20191,212
Togo20191,205
Haiti20191,164
Liberia20191,112
Gambia20191,039
Tanzania2019978
Burkina Faso2019952
Afghanistan2019946
Eritrea2019945
Ethiopia2019944
Uganda2019862
Guinea-Bissau2019721
South Sudan2019705
Madagascar2019677
Malawi2019530
Sierra Leone2019528
Rwanda2019500
Chad2019462
Niger2019451
Democratic Republic of Congo2019403
Central African Republic2019328
Burundi2019319
Somalia2019236

Iceland tops the list and is also the leading generator of electricity per capita. Thanks to the country’s abundance of geothermal resources, geothermal and hydropower plants account for more than 99% of Iceland’s electricity generation.

Many of the top 10 countries are large energy producers or industry-heavy economies. For example, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Kuwait, Norway, and Qatar are among the world’s 15 largest oil-producing countries. Similarly, Trinidad and Tobago is the largest oil and gas producer in the Caribbean and is one of the largest exporters of ammonia globally.

The presence of energy-intensive industries like oil and gas extraction is likely a major factor influencing total and per-person energy use in these countries.

Why is Tiny Iceland So Big on Energy Use?

Why does Iceland use so much energy per person?

Let’s take a look at Iceland’s colossal industrial energy consumption, to see where energy goes:

Sector / Industry2019 energy consumption* (thousand kWh)% of total
Aluminum smelters12,490,26665.9%
Services1,127,6155.9%
Data centers990,0975.2%
Ferroalloy industry897,8464.7%
Residential847,7134.5%
Utilities781,7074.1%
Aluminum foil industry473,7232.5%
Agriculture231,2361.2%
Fisheries78,9400.4%
Other industries1,038,4105.5%
Total18,957,553100%

*Energy consumption excludes losses.
Source: Orkustofnunn – National Energy Authority of Iceland

Iceland’s three Aluminum smelters—Alcoa, Rio Tinto Alcan, and Century Aluminum—consume more energy than all other sectors combined, and account for 30% of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions. Iceland isn’t particularly rich in bauxite (the raw material used to make aluminum), but cheap and clean electricity are big incentives for aluminum smelters to set up operations on the island.

For similar reasons, Iceland is also a popular destination for data centers and bitcoin mining. The year-round cool climate lowers cooling costs for thousands of computers running around the clock, and clean grid electricity minimizes their carbon footprint.

Overall, it’s not surprising that the residential sector is among the smaller consumers of energy, despite the importance of home heating in a cool climate. Iceland’s industries, especially aluminum smelting, make up the bulk of its energy use, pushing the overall per-person use above all other countries.

The Bottom 10 Countries

Countries at the bottom end of the list are among the world’s least-developed economies, with relatively lower GDP per capita numbers.

Country2019 Energy consumption per capita (kWh)GDP per capita (2020, current US$)
Madagascar677$471.5
Malawi530$636.8
Sierra Leone528$509.4
Rwanda500$797.9
Chad462$659.3
Niger451$567.7
Democratic Republic of Congo403$544.0
Central African Republic328$492.8
Burundi319$239.0
Somalia236$438.3

These countries consumed significantly less energy per capita compared to the global average of 19,836 kWh. In a stark contrast to the countries topping the list, their per capita GDPs are all lower than $1,000.

As economies develop, villages get electrified, megacities emerge, and industries grow, leading to higher overall energy consumption. On a global scale, if economic growth continues, energy consumption per capita is likely to continue its steady increase.

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Urbanization

Ranked: The 20 Most Air-Polluted Cities on Earth

Using 2022 average PM2.5 concentrations, we rank the most polluted cities in the world.

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Ranked: The 20 Most Air-Polluted Cities on Earth

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost the entire global population (99%) breathes air that exceeds WHO air quality limits.

In the above map, we use 2022 average PM2.5 concentrations from IQAir’s World Air Quality Report to visualize the most air-polluted major cities in the world.

World’s Air Pollution Hot Spots

As one of the standard air quality indicators used by the WHO, the PM2.5 concentration refers to the quantity of fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less in a given volume of air.

Fine particulate matter that is this small can penetrate the lungs when inhaled and enter the bloodstream, affecting all major organs.

Based on annual average PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m³) in 2022, here are the most polluted cities in the world.

RankCity 2022 average PM2.5 concentration (μg/m³)
1🇵🇰 Lahore, Pakistan97.4
2🇨🇳 Hotan, China94.3
3🇮🇳 Bhiwadi, India92.7
4🇮🇳 Delhi, India92.6
5🇵🇰 Peshawar, Pakistan91.8
6🇮🇳 Darbhanga, India90.3
7🇮🇳 Asopur, India90.2
8🇹🇩 N'Djamena, Chad89.7
9🇮🇳 New Delhi, India89.1
10🇮🇳 Patna, India88.9
11🇮🇳 Ghaziabad, India88.6
12🇮🇳 Dharuhera, India87.8
13🇮🇶 Baghdad, Iraq86.7
14🇮🇳 Chapra, India85.9
15🇮🇳 Muzaffarnagar, India85.5
16🇵🇰 Faisalabad, Pakistan84.5
17🇮🇳 Greater Noida, India83.2
18🇮🇳 Bahadurgarh, India82.2
19🇮🇳 Faridabad, India79.7
20🇮🇳 Muzaffarpur, India79.2

With numbers these high, the concentration of some or all of the following pollutants are at dangerous levels in these cities:

  • Ground-level ozone
  • Particulate matter
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Sulfur dioxide
  • Nitrogen dioxide

At the top of the list, Lahore in Pakistan has a combination of high vehicle and industrial emissions, as well as smoke from brick kilns, crop residue, general waste burning, and dust from construction sites.

Air pollution levels can also be impacted by practices such as large-scale tree removal in order to build new roads and buildings.

As a result of its growing population and rapidly expanding industrial sector, India has 14 cities on the list, outpacing China, formerly considered the world’s number one air pollution source.

The only African country on the list, Chad, experienced severe dust storms in 2022 that resulted in an 18% increase in PM2.5 concentration in 2022 compared to the previous year.

The Cost of Poor Air Quality

Poor air quality is one of the leading causes of early deaths worldwide, just behind high blood pressure, tobacco use, and poor diet.

According to a 2020 study by the Health Effects Institute, 6.67 million people died as a result of air pollution in 2019.

In addition to the millions of premature deaths each year, the global cost of health damages associated with air pollution currently sits at $8.1 trillion.

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Urbanization

Visualizing the World’s Largest Steel-Producing Countries

China has dominated global steel production the past few decades, but how did the country get here, and is its production growth over?

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cropped infographic of global steel production by country in 2022

The Largest Steel-Producing Countries: Visualized

Steel is a critical component of modern industry and economy, essential for the construction of buildings, automobiles, and many other appliances and infrastructure used in our daily lives.

This graphic uses data from the World Steel Association to visualize the world’s top steel-producing countries, and highlights China’s ascent to the top, as it now makes up more than half of the world’s steel production.

The State of Global Steel Production

Global steel production in 2022 reached 1,878 million tonnes, barely surpassing the pre-pandemic production of 1,875 million tonnes in 2019.

Country2022 Production (in million tonnes)Annual Production ChangeGlobal Share
🇨🇳 China1013.0-2.0%53.9%
🇮🇳 India124.85.3%6.6%
🇯🇵 Japan89.2-7.9%4.8%
🇺🇸 United States80.5-6.5%4.3%
🇷🇺 Russia71.5-5.8%3.8%
🇰🇷 South Korea65.9-6.9%3.5%
🇩🇪 Germany36.8-8.8%2.0%
🇹🇷 Türkiye35.1-15.0%1.9%
🇧🇷 Brazil34.0-6.5%1.8%
🇮🇷 Iran30.66.8%1.6%
🇮🇹 Italy21.6-13.0%1.1%
🇹🇼 Taiwan20.7-12.1%1.1%
🇻🇳 Vietnam20.0-15.0%1.1%
🇲🇽 Mexico18.2-1.9%1.0%
🇮🇩 Indonesia15.68.3%0.8%
Rest of World201.0-11.2%10.7%
World Total1878.5-3.9%100.0%

2022’s steel production marked a significant reduction compared to the post-pandemic rebound of 1,960 million tonnes in 2021, with a year-over-year decline of 4.2%–the largest drop since 2009, and prior to that, 1991.

This decline was spread across many of the world’s top steel producers, with only three of the top fifteen countries, India, Iran, and Indonesia, increasing their yearly production. Most of the other top steel-producing countries saw annual production declines of more than 5%, with Turkey, Italy, Taiwan, and Vietnam’s production all declining by double digits.

Even the world’s top steel-producing nation, China, experienced a modest 2% decline, which due to the country’s large production amounted to a decline of 19.8 million tonnes, more than many other nations produce in a year.

Despite India, the world’s second-largest steel producer, increasing its production by 5.3%, the country’s output still amounts to just over one-tenth of the steel produced by China.

China’s Meteoric Rise in Steel Production

Although China dominates the world’s steel production with more than a 54% share today, this hasn’t always been the case.

In 1967, the World Steel Association’s first recorded year of steel production figures, China only produced an estimated 14 million tonnes, making up barely 3% of global output. At that time, the U.S. and the USSR were competing as the world’s top steel producers at 115 and 102 million tonnes respectively, followed by Japan at 62 million tonnes.

Almost three decades later in 1996, China had successively overtaken Russia, the U.S., and Japan to become the top steel-producing nation with 101 million tonnes of steel produced that year.

The early 2000s marked a period of rapid growth for China, with consistent double-digit percentage increases in steel production each year.

The Recent Decline in China’s Steel Production

Since the early 2000s, China’s average annual growth in steel production has slowed to 3.4% over the last decade (2013-2022), a considerable decline compared to the previous decade’s (2003-2012) 15.2% average annual growth rate.

The past couple of years have seen China’s steel production decline, with 2021 and 2022 marking the first time the country’s production fell for two consecutive years in a row.

While it’s unlikely China will relinquish its position as the top steel-producing nation anytime soon, it remains to be seen whether this recent decline marks the beginning of a new trend or just a brief deviation from the country’s consistent production growth.

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