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Mapped: The 3 Billion People Who Can’t Afford a Healthy Diet

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The 3 Billion People Who Canโ€™t Afford a Healthy Diet

While they arenโ€™t often the focus of news media, hunger and undernourishment are problems plaguing millions of people every day.

According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), more than 3 billion people could not afford a healthy diet in 2020, an additional 112 million more people than in 2019. The increase was partly because of rising food prices, with the average cost of a healthy diet rising by 3.3% from 2019 levels.

As of August 2022, the FAO food price index was up 40.6% from average 2020 levels. Unless income levels increased by a similar magnitude, the healthy diet crisis is likely to have worsened, especially in low-income countries experiencing rampant food inflation.

Using data from the FAO, the above infographic maps the share of people unable to afford a healthy diet in 138 different countries as of 2020 (latest available data).

The Cost and Affordability of a Healthy Diet

According to the FAO, a healthy diet is one that meets daily energy needs as well as requirements within the food and dietary guidelines created by the country.

The (un)affordability is measured by comparing the cost of a healthy diet to income levels in the country. If the cost exceeds 52% of an average householdโ€™s income, the diet is deemed unaffordable.

Hereโ€™s a look at the share of populations unable to afford a healthy diet, and the cost of such a diet around the world:

CountryPercent of population unable to afford a healthy dietCost of Healthy Diet (USD per Person per Day)
Burundi ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎ97.2%$2.9
Madagascar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌ97.0%$3.2
Liberia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ท96.8%$3.9
Malawi ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผ96.6%$3.1
Nigeria ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ95.9%$4.1
Central African Republic ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซ95.1%$3.6
Guinea ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณ94.9%$4.1
Angola ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด94.3%$4.5
Congo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌ92.4%$3.4
Sudan ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉ91.8%$4.3
Mozambique ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ91.5%$3.2
Democratic Republic of Congo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉ90.0%$2.1
Sierra Leone ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ89.2%$2.9
Niger ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช88.8%$2.9
Zambia ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒ88.0%$3.3
Tanzania ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ87.6%$2.7
Guinea-Bissau ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผ87.2%$3.5
Ethiopia ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น86.8%$3.4
Rwanda ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผ86.3%$2.7
Haiti ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น85.9%$4.5
Sao Tome and Principe ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡น84.7%$3.6
Nepal ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต84.0%$4.4
Lesotho ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธ83.5%$4.3
Pakistan ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐ83.5%$3.7
Chad ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉ83.4%$2.8
Benin ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ82.9%$3.7
Uganda ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ82.2%$2.7
Kenya ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช81.1%$3.0
Burkina Faso ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซ80.1%$3.3
Laos ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ79.8%$4.1
Mali ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ74.3%$3.1
Bangladesh ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉ73.5%$3.1
Egypt ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ72.9%$3.4
Eswatini ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟ71.8%$3.4
India ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ70.5%$3.0
Indonesia ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ69.1%$4.5
Philippines ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ68.6%$4.1
Jamaica ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒ66.2%$6.7
South Africa ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ65.2%$4.3
Myanmar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ65.1%$4.2
Gambia ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ64.0%$3.1
Djibouti ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏ63.9%$3.1
Botswana ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผ61.4%$3.7
Ghana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ61.2%$4.0
Cameroon ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ60.7%$2.8
Mauritania ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ท60.7%$3.7
Fiji ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ60.4%$3.9
Suriname ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ท58.8%$5.7
Namibia ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆ56.8%$3.5
Bhutan ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡น53.0%$5.0
Mongolia ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณ51.4%$5.1
Honduras ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ51.3%$3.5
Iraq ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ49.6%$3.5
Kyrgyzstan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฌ49.6%$3.2
Sri Lanka ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ49.0%$3.9
Senegal ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ46.0%$2.3
Guyana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พ43.0%$4.9
Armenia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ42.9%$3.2
Tajikistan ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏ42.1%$3.5
Cabo Verde ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป38.1%$3.6
Belize ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟ36.4%$2.1
Gabon ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ36.3%$3.6
Nicaragua ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ35.7%$3.3
Algeria ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ30.2%$3.8
Vietnam ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ30.0%$4.1
Colombia ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด26.5%$3.1
Mexico ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ26.3%$3.3
Bolivia ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด24.7%$3.8
Palestine ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธ23.1%$3.4
Ecuador ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ21.4%$2.9
Saint Lucia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จ20.6%$3.6
Peru ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช20.5%$3.3
Iran ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท20.3%$3.6
Tunisia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ20.3%$3.6
Albania ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ20.1%$4.2
Brazil ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท19.0%$3.1
Dominican Republic ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ด18.3%$3.9
Panama ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ18.2%$4.5
North Macedonia ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ18.0%$3.4
Paraguay ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พ17.8%$3.5
Montenegro ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช17.5%$3.5
Thailand ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ17.0%$4.3
Costa Rica ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ท16.8%$4.1
Morocco ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ16.7%$2.8
Serbia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ16.3%$4.2
Jordan ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ด14.9%$3.6
Mauritius ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บ13.5%$3.6
China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ12.0%$3.0
Trinidad and Tobago ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡น11.6%$4.2
Romania ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด8.8%$3.2
Bulgaria ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ8.5%$4.1
Seychelles ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จ6.8%$3.8
Moldova ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉ6.7%$2.8
Chile ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ3.8%$3.4
Croatia ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท3.8%$4.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ3.7%$4.0
Uruguay ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ3.6%$3.4
Russia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ3.5%$3.4
Greece ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท3.2%$3.1
Italy ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น2.9%$3.1
Japan ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต2.5%$5.8
Hungary ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ2.0%$3.5
Spain ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ2.0%$2.8
Malaysia ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ1.9%$3.5
Latvia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป1.8%$3.2
South Korea ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท1.7%$5.2
United States ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ1.5%$3.4
Maldives ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ป1.4%$3.9
Estonia ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช1.3%$3.3
Kazakhstan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ1.2%$2.7
Lithuania ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น1.2%$3.1
Slovakia ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ1.2%$3.2
Israel ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ1.0%$2.5
Poland ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ1.0%$3.2
Austria ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น0.8%$3.0
Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ0.7%$2.6
Canada ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ0.7%$3.0
Malta ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น0.7%$3.8
Sweden ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช0.6%$3.3
Portugal ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น0.5%$2.7
United Kingdom ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง0.5%$1.9
Denmark ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ0.4%$2.5
Norway ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด0.4%$3.5
Cyprus ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พ0.3%$3.0
Belarus ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พ0.2%$3.3
Belgium ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช0.2%$3.1
Czechia0.2%$3.0
Germany ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช0.2%$3.0
Netherlands ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ0.2%$3.0
Finland ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ0.1%$2.7
France ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท0.1%$3.2
Ireland ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช0.1%$2.2
Luxembourg ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ0.1%$2.7
Slovenia ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ0.1%$3.1
Azerbaijan ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ0.0%$2.5
Iceland ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ0.0%$2.4
Switzerland ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ0.0%$2.7
United Arab Emirates ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช0.0%$3.1
World ๐ŸŒŽ42.0%$3.5

In 52 countries, more than half of the population cannot afford a healthy diet. The majority of these are in Africa, with the rest located across Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

By contrast, in four countriesโ€”Azerbaijan, Iceland, Switzerland, and the UAEโ€”everyone is able to afford a healthy diet. The picture is similar for most European and developed high-income countries, where more than 95% of the population can afford a healthy diet.

When the percentages are translated into numbers, Asia contains the most number of people unable to afford a healthy diet at 1.89 billion, of which 973 million people are in India alone. Another 1 billion people are in Africa, with around 151 million people in the Americas and Oceania.

While hunger is a worldwide concern, it is particularly acute in African countries, which cover all of the top 20 spots in the above table.

Africaโ€™s Deepening Food Crisis

In many countries across sub-Saharan Africa, more than 90% of the population cannot afford a healthy diet.

Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly susceptible to extreme climate events and the resulting volatility in food prices. Roughly one-third of the worldโ€™s droughts occur in the region, and some sub-Saharan countries are also heavily reliant on imports for food.

Russiaโ€™s invasion of Ukraine has deepened the crisis, with many African countries importing over 50% of their wheat from the two countries in conflict. The rising food prices from this supply chain disruption have resulted in double-digit food inflation in many African nations, which means that more people are likely to be unable to afford healthy diets.

The Horn of Africa region at the Eastern tip of Africa is particularly in turmoil. All the countries in the region are reliant on wheat from Russia and Ukraine, with Eritrea (100%) and Somalia (>90%) high up in the import dependency chart. Additionally, the region is facing its worst drought in 40 years alongside ongoing political conflicts. As a result, 22 million people are at risk of starvation.

Population Growth and Food Insecurity

In November of 2022, the global population is projected to surpass 8 billion people, and many of the fastest growing countries are also food-insecure.

By 2050, the global population is likely to increase by 35%, and to meet the growing demand for food, crop production will need to double. Given that agriculture is one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, this increase in crop production will also need to be environmentally sustainable.

As the impacts of climate change intensify and food demand increases, reducing food waste, building climate-resilient agricultural infrastructure, and improving agricultural productivity will all play a key role in reducing the levels of food insecurity sustainably.

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Misc

What is the FIFA World Cup Trophy Made Of?

This infographic explores the history and composition of the FIFA World Cup trophy ahead of the 22nd edition of the competition.

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What is the FIFA World Cup Trophy Made Of?

Soccer is one of the worldโ€™s most popular sports with approximately 3.5 billion fans globally.

It was in Uruguay, in 1930, that the very first FIFA World Cup was held. It has occurred once every four years since then (except in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II).

This year, 92 years after its start, the 22nd FIFA World Cup tournament is scheduled to take place in Qatar. The highly anticipated event involves 32 national teams that will compete to win one of the most prestigious titles and a historic trophy.

So, what is the coveted FIFA World Cup trophy made up of?

The History and Composition of FIFA World Cup Trophies

Since its debut in the first FIFA World Cup tournament, in 1930, there have been two iterations of the World Cup trophy. Both trophies were made with a combination of metals and rare stones.

Until 1970, the Jules Rimet Trophy, designed by the French sculptor Abel Lafleur, glorified the winning team. A redesigned version of the trophy by Silvio Gazzaniga replaced the original in the 1974 FIFA World Cup tournament.

The Jules Rimet Trophy

Commonly called the Coupe du Monde (French for World Cup), the Jules Rimet trophy was officially renamed in 1946, honoring the then FIFA president Jules Rimet on his 25th Anniversary in office.

The trophy had a height of 35cm and weighed 3.8kg. It was made of gold-plated sterling silver and featured Nike, the Greek Goddess of Victory, holding an octagonal cup. The base of the trophy was made from a semi-precious stone called lapis lazuli. Golden plates were attached to each side of the base and they held the names of the winning teams from 1930 to 1970.

Since the beginning, it was agreed that the first team to win the World Cup three times would get to permanently keep the trophy. In 1970, Brazil marked its third victory by beating Italy in the finals and took the Jules Rimet trophy home.

However, in 1983, the trophy that even survived World War 2 was stolen from the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) headquarters in Rio de Janeiro and was never found. The only original piece of the Jules Rimet trophy in existence is the base that was replaced in 1954 to accommodate more winning-team names.

The FIFA World Cup Trophy

After handing over Abel Lafleurโ€™s original trophy to Brazil in 1970, FIFA held a design competition in search of a new World Cup trophy. The association received 53 submissions from seven countries and Silvio Gazzanigaโ€™s design of two human figures holding the Earth in their hands won the competition.

This new trophy is 36.5cm tall and weighs 6.17kg. It is made from 5kg of 18-karat gold and two layers of malachite. The base of the trophy is 13cm in diameter and the names of all winning teams since 1974 along with the years are engraved on it. This current iteration of the World Cup trophy can accommodate the names of 17 winning countries and years.

Unlike the Jules Rimet trophy, the current iteration of the trophy will not be handed over to a team definitively. It permanently belongs to the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) and is secured at its Zurich headquarters.

However, a gold-plated bronze replica of the cup referred to as the World Cup Winnersโ€™ Trophy is given to every winning team.

Battle Royal: The 2022 FIFA World Cup

The 2022 FIFA World Cup tournament is long awaited by billions of passionate soccer fans.

It could be the final opportunity for two of the worldโ€™s best playersโ€”Cristiano Ronaldo, and Lionel Messiโ€”to lift the World Cup trophy as they supposedly plan to retire from international games before the next World Cup.

This year, will your favorite national team be able to pose for a victory picture holding the golden trophy in their hands?

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Misc

Ranked: The World’s Top Cotton Producers

As the most-used natural fiber, cotton has become the most important non-food agricultural product.

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Top-Cotton-Producers

The Top Cotton Producers

Cotton is present in our everyday life, from clothes to coffee strainers, and more recently in masks to control the spread of COVID-19.

As the most-used natural fiber, cotton has become the most important non-food agricultural product. Currently, approximately half of all textiles require cotton fibers.

The above infographic lists the world’s top cotton producers, using data from the United States Department of Agriculture.

Fancy Fabric

Originating from the Arabic word โ€œquton,โ€ meaning fancy fabric, cotton is a staple fiber made up of short fibers twisted together to form yarn.

The earliest production of cotton was around 5,000 B.C. in India, and today, around 25 million tons of cotton are produced each year.

Currently, five countries make up around 75% of global cotton production, with China being the worldโ€™s biggest producer. The country is responsible for over 23% of global production, with approximately 89 million cotton farmers and part-time workers. Cottonโ€™s importance cannot be understated, as it is the primary input for the Chinese textile industry along with many other nationsโ€™ textile industries.

Top Cotton Producers2020/2021 (metric tons)2021/2022 (metric tons)
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ China 6,445,0005,835,000
๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ India6,009,0005,334,000
๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ United States3,181,0003,815,000
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brazil2,356,0002,504,000
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ Australia610,0001,252,000
๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐ Pakistan 980,0001,306,000
๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Turkey631,000827,000
๐ŸŒ Other 4,059,0004,282,000
Total24,271,00025,155,000

The United States is the leading global exporter of cotton, exporting three-fourths of its crop with China as the top buyer.

Despite its importance for the global economy, cotton production faces significant sustainability challenges.

The Controversy Over Cotton

Cotton is one of the largest users of water among all agricultural commodities, and production often involves applying pesticides that threaten soil and water quality.

Along with this, production often involves forced and child labor. According to the European Commission, child labor in the cotton supply chain is most common in Africa and Asia, where it comes from small-holder farmers.

In 2020, U.S. apparel maker Patagonia stopped sourcing cotton from the autonomous territory of Xinjiang because of reports about forced labor and other human rights abuses against Uighurs and other ethnic minorities.

L Brands, the parent company of Victoria’s Secret, has also committed to eliminating Chinese cotton from its supply chain. Whether these changes in supply chains impact China’s cotton production and its practices, cotton remains essential to materials found across our daily lives.

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