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Mapped: The 3 Billion People Who Can’t Afford a Healthy Diet

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cost of healthy diet

The 3 Billion People Who Canโ€™t Afford a Healthy Diet

While they arenโ€™t often the focus of news media, hunger and undernourishment are problems plaguing millions of people every day.

According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), more than 3 billion people could not afford a healthy diet in 2020, an additional 112 million more people than in 2019. The increase was partly because of rising food prices, with the average cost of a healthy diet rising by 3.3% from 2019 levels.

As of August 2022, the FAO food price index was up 40.6% from average 2020 levels. Unless income levels increased by a similar magnitude, the healthy diet crisis is likely to have worsened, especially in low-income countries experiencing rampant food inflation.

Using data from the FAO, the above infographic maps the share of people unable to afford a healthy diet in 138 different countries as of 2020 (latest available data).

The Cost and Affordability of a Healthy Diet

According to the FAO, a healthy diet is one that meets daily energy needs as well as requirements within the food and dietary guidelines created by the country.

The (un)affordability is measured by comparing the cost of a healthy diet to income levels in the country. If the cost exceeds 52% of an average householdโ€™s income, the diet is deemed unaffordable.

Hereโ€™s a look at the share of populations unable to afford a healthy diet, and the cost of such a diet around the world:

CountryPercent of population unable to afford a healthy dietCost of Healthy Diet (USD per Person per Day)
Burundi ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎ97.2%$2.9
Madagascar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌ97.0%$3.2
Liberia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ท96.8%$3.9
Malawi ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผ96.6%$3.1
Nigeria ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ95.9%$4.1
Central African Republic ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซ95.1%$3.6
Guinea ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณ94.9%$4.1
Angola ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด94.3%$4.5
Congo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌ92.4%$3.4
Sudan ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉ91.8%$4.3
Mozambique ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ91.5%$3.2
Democratic Republic of Congo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉ90.0%$2.1
Sierra Leone ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ89.2%$2.9
Niger ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช88.8%$2.9
Zambia ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒ88.0%$3.3
Tanzania ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ87.6%$2.7
Guinea-Bissau ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผ87.2%$3.5
Ethiopia ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น86.8%$3.4
Rwanda ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผ86.3%$2.7
Haiti ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น85.9%$4.5
Sao Tome and Principe ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡น84.7%$3.6
Nepal ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต84.0%$4.4
Lesotho ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธ83.5%$4.3
Pakistan ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐ83.5%$3.7
Chad ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉ83.4%$2.8
Benin ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ82.9%$3.7
Uganda ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ82.2%$2.7
Kenya ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช81.1%$3.0
Burkina Faso ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซ80.1%$3.3
Laos ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ79.8%$4.1
Mali ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ74.3%$3.1
Bangladesh ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉ73.5%$3.1
Egypt ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ72.9%$3.4
Eswatini ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟ71.8%$3.4
India ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ70.5%$3.0
Indonesia ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ69.1%$4.5
Philippines ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ68.6%$4.1
Jamaica ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒ66.2%$6.7
South Africa ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ65.2%$4.3
Myanmar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ65.1%$4.2
Gambia ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ64.0%$3.1
Djibouti ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏ63.9%$3.1
Botswana ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผ61.4%$3.7
Ghana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ61.2%$4.0
Cameroon ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ60.7%$2.8
Mauritania ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ท60.7%$3.7
Fiji ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ60.4%$3.9
Suriname ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ท58.8%$5.7
Namibia ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆ56.8%$3.5
Bhutan ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡น53.0%$5.0
Mongolia ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณ51.4%$5.1
Honduras ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ51.3%$3.5
Iraq ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ49.6%$3.5
Kyrgyzstan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฌ49.6%$3.2
Sri Lanka ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ49.0%$3.9
Senegal ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ46.0%$2.3
Guyana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พ43.0%$4.9
Armenia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ42.9%$3.2
Tajikistan ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏ42.1%$3.5
Cabo Verde ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป38.1%$3.6
Belize ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟ36.4%$2.1
Gabon ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ36.3%$3.6
Nicaragua ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ35.7%$3.3
Algeria ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ30.2%$3.8
Vietnam ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ30.0%$4.1
Colombia ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด26.5%$3.1
Mexico ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ26.3%$3.3
Bolivia ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด24.7%$3.8
Palestine ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธ23.1%$3.4
Ecuador ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ21.4%$2.9
Saint Lucia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จ20.6%$3.6
Peru ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช20.5%$3.3
Iran ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท20.3%$3.6
Tunisia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ20.3%$3.6
Albania ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ20.1%$4.2
Brazil ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท19.0%$3.1
Dominican Republic ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ด18.3%$3.9
Panama ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ18.2%$4.5
North Macedonia ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ18.0%$3.4
Paraguay ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พ17.8%$3.5
Montenegro ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช17.5%$3.5
Thailand ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ17.0%$4.3
Costa Rica ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ท16.8%$4.1
Morocco ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ16.7%$2.8
Serbia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ16.3%$4.2
Jordan ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ด14.9%$3.6
Mauritius ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บ13.5%$3.6
China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ12.0%$3.0
Trinidad and Tobago ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡น11.6%$4.2
Romania ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด8.8%$3.2
Bulgaria ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ8.5%$4.1
Seychelles ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จ6.8%$3.8
Moldova ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉ6.7%$2.8
Chile ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ3.8%$3.4
Croatia ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท3.8%$4.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ3.7%$4.0
Uruguay ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ3.6%$3.4
Russia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ3.5%$3.4
Greece ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท3.2%$3.1
Italy ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น2.9%$3.1
Japan ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต2.5%$5.8
Hungary ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ2.0%$3.5
Spain ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ2.0%$2.8
Malaysia ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ1.9%$3.5
Latvia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป1.8%$3.2
South Korea ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท1.7%$5.2
United States ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ1.5%$3.4
Maldives ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ป1.4%$3.9
Estonia ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช1.3%$3.3
Kazakhstan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ1.2%$2.7
Lithuania ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น1.2%$3.1
Slovakia ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ1.2%$3.2
Israel ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ1.0%$2.5
Poland ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ1.0%$3.2
Austria ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น0.8%$3.0
Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ0.7%$2.6
Canada ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ0.7%$3.0
Malta ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น0.7%$3.8
Sweden ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช0.6%$3.3
Portugal ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น0.5%$2.7
United Kingdom ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง0.5%$1.9
Denmark ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ0.4%$2.5
Norway ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด0.4%$3.5
Cyprus ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พ0.3%$3.0
Belarus ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พ0.2%$3.3
Belgium ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช0.2%$3.1
Czechia0.2%$3.0
Germany ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช0.2%$3.0
Netherlands ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ0.2%$3.0
Finland ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ0.1%$2.7
France ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท0.1%$3.2
Ireland ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช0.1%$2.2
Luxembourg ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ0.1%$2.7
Slovenia ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ0.1%$3.1
Azerbaijan ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ0.0%$2.5
Iceland ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ0.0%$2.4
Switzerland ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ0.0%$2.7
United Arab Emirates ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช0.0%$3.1
World ๐ŸŒŽ42.0%$3.5

In 52 countries, more than half of the population cannot afford a healthy diet. The majority of these are in Africa, with the rest located across Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

By contrast, in four countriesโ€”Azerbaijan, Iceland, Switzerland, and the UAEโ€”everyone is able to afford a healthy diet. The picture is similar for most European and developed high-income countries, where more than 95% of the population can afford a healthy diet.

When the percentages are translated into numbers, Asia contains the most number of people unable to afford a healthy diet at 1.89 billion, of which 973 million people are in India alone. Another 1 billion people are in Africa, with around 151 million people in the Americas and Oceania.

While hunger is a worldwide concern, it is particularly acute in African countries, which cover all of the top 20 spots in the above table.

Africaโ€™s Deepening Food Crisis

In many countries across sub-Saharan Africa, more than 90% of the population cannot afford a healthy diet.

Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly susceptible to extreme climate events and the resulting volatility in food prices. Roughly one-third of the worldโ€™s droughts occur in the region, and some sub-Saharan countries are also heavily reliant on imports for food.

Russiaโ€™s invasion of Ukraine has deepened the crisis, with many African countries importing over 50% of their wheat from the two countries in conflict. The rising food prices from this supply chain disruption have resulted in double-digit food inflation in many African nations, which means that more people are likely to be unable to afford healthy diets.

The Horn of Africa region at the Eastern tip of Africa is particularly in turmoil. All the countries in the region are reliant on wheat from Russia and Ukraine, with Eritrea (100%) and Somalia (>90%) high up in the import dependency chart. Additionally, the region is facing its worst drought in 40 years alongside ongoing political conflicts. As a result, 22 million people are at risk of starvation.

Population Growth and Food Insecurity

In November of 2022, the global population is projected to surpass 8 billion people, and many of the fastest growing countries are also food-insecure.

By 2050, the global population is likely to increase by 35%, and to meet the growing demand for food, crop production will need to double. Given that agriculture is one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, this increase in crop production will also need to be environmentally sustainable.

As the impacts of climate change intensify and food demand increases, reducing food waste, building climate-resilient agricultural infrastructure, and improving agricultural productivity will all play a key role in reducing the levels of food insecurity sustainably.

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Visualizing Global Aluminum Production

China dominates global production with nearly 60% share.

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Voronoi graphic of aluminum production in 2023.

Visualizing Global Aluminum Production

This was originally posted on ourย Voronoi app. Download the app for free onย iOSย orย Androidย and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

This infographic shows estimated aluminum smelter production by country in 2023, based on data from theย most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries, published in January 2024 .

From this data, we can see that China leads as the top producer, accounting for nearlyย 60%ย of the worldโ€™s smelter capacity. Its neighbor India is the second-largest producer, making only a tenth of Chinaโ€™s output.

Country2023 Aluminum Smelter Production (tonnes)% of total
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ China41,000,00059%
๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ India4,100,0006%
๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Russia3,800,0005%
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Canada3,000,0004%
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช United Arab Emirates2,700,0004%
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ Bahrain1,600,0002%
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ Australia1,500,0002%
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Norway1,300,0002%
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brazil1,100,0002%
๐ŸŒ Rest of the World9,460,00014%
Total69,560,000100%

Responsible for 5% of global aluminum output, Russia has been targeted by recentย sanctionsย from the U.S. and the UK.

The sanctions include prohibiting metal-trading exchanges from accepting new aluminum produced by Russia and barring the import of the Russian metal into the U.S. and Britain. The actions are aimed at disrupting Russian export revenue amid Moscowโ€™s ongoing invasion of Ukraine.

The Worldโ€™s Most Common Metal

Aluminum is the primary material used for making cans, foil, and many other products. It originates from bauxites, rocks composed of aluminum oxides, and various minerals.

Approximately 25% of annually produced aluminum is utilized by the construction industry, while another 23% is allocated to vehicle frames, wires, wheels, and other components within the transportation sector. Aluminum foil, cans, and packaging constitute another significant end-use category, accounting for 17% of consumption.

Despite its extensive use, aluminum is still plentiful. Aluminum is the worldโ€™sย most commonย metal by crustal abundance, making up 8.2% of the Earth’s crust.

According to the USGS, global resources of bauxite are estimated to be between 55 billion and 75 billion tonnes and are sufficient to meet world demand for metal well into the future.

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Brass Rods: The Sustainable Choice

Brass rods can help cut emissions in machine shops, be recycled without losing properties, and contribute to a cleaner environment.

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Teaser of bar chart and pie chart highlighting how brass rods can reduce emissions in machine shops, be recycled without losing properties, and contribute to a cleaner environment.

Brass Rods: The Sustainable Choice

Brass rods have a powerful lineup of green attributes, making them the sustainable choice for manufacturers and end-users of precision machined and forged parts.

This infographic, from theย Copper Development Association, shows how brass rods can reduce emissions in machine shops, be recycled without losing properties, and contribute to a cleaner environment.

The Brass Rod Circular Economy

The metallurgical properties of brass allow pre- and post-consumer sources of brass scrap to be recycled with no loss in properties.

Brass scrap can retain overย 90%ย of the original material value. In addition, brass doesnโ€™t need energy-intensive processing, unlike steel and aluminum, which must be smelted and refined before being recycled into new products.

As a result, there is a greater chance that steel and aluminum scrap will end up in landfills.

Most brass-rod alloys produced in North America containย 95%ย or higher recycled content.

Closed-loop recycling of brass keeps this valuable engineering material out of landfills, reducing the need for new mines and all the environmental impacts that entails.

Higher Machinability Leads to Lower Operational Carbon Emissions

Machinability is how easily a material can be worked using cutting processes. It directly impacts the amount of energy required to produce finished parts.

With typical machine shops producing millions of parts each year, theย carbonย impact can be significant.

Hereโ€™s how brass and steelย compareย when manufacturing complex parts using computer numerical control (CNC) machining.

MaterialBrassSteel
TypeFree-cutting brass (C36000)Free-cutting steel (12L14)
Maximum machinability rating (0-100)10021
Metal Removal Rate (cubic inches per minute)0.2380.114
Time to remove material (hours)161,111336,111
Energy required to produce parts (kilowatt-hour)9,47518,931

In this example, using brass represented a savings ofย 3,510 kgย in carbon dioxide (CO2).

The significantly longer tool life enabled by brass also reduces the need for new cutting tools, further decreasing emissions.

High recycled content and exceptional machinability make brass rods the sustainable choice for manufacturers and end-users seeking to reduce their environmental footprint and support the transition to a low-carbon future.

Explore the advantages of brass rod solutions.

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