Connect with us

Real Assets

The World’s Most Famous Diamonds

Published

on

| 2,865 views

The World's Most Famous Diamonds

The World’s Most Famous Diamonds

The stories and histories of the most famous diamonds

You may have heard of the Cullinan Diamond or the Hope Diamond before, but do you know the stories behind these legendary finds?

Today’s infographic looks at the history and characteristics of six of the most famous diamonds.

A Diamond Primer

Every diamond is unique, and as a result the value of a particular diamond is partially determined by the eye of the beholder. The diamond industry generally uses a set of criteria called the Four C’s to help evaluate the potential value of a diamond: Clarity, Cut, Carats, and Color.

Most diamonds found have major deficiencies in one or more of the above categories. For example, while a diamond may be clear and large in size, it may have a less desirable color and shape. In a previous infographic, we explain the importance of these characteristics in more depth, and we’ve also previously posted on the significance of rare-colored diamonds.

The most famous diamonds in the world are exceptionally rare: they tend to excel in all four of the above categories. They are a desired color and shape, have great clarity, and are giant in size.

The Most Famous Diamonds

The stories behind six of the most famous diamonds in brief:

The Cullinan Diamond: Perhaps the most well-known, the Cullinan Diamond was discovered in 1905 in South Africa. Weighing in at 3,106.75 carats, the Cullinan is the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever discovered. The diamond was ultimately cut into nine smaller stones including the 530.20 carat Star of Africa, which is valued at over $400 million alone.

The Hope Diamond: The Hope Diamond is a grayish-blue diamond that was discovered in India at an unknown date. It has a long history, in which it changed hands numerous times between countries and eventually ended up at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.

The Centenary Diamond: The Centenary Diamond is considered to be one of the most flawless diamonds, both internally and externally. Discovered in South Africa, it was unveiled in its final form by De Beers in 1991. The current owner is unknown.

The Regent Diamond: This pale blue diamond was discovered by a slave in India in 1698. After eventually making it to the crowns of Louis XV and Louis XVI in France, it is now on display at the Louvre in Paris and weighs 140.64 carats.

The Koh-i-Noor Diamond: Meaning “Mountain of Light” in the Persian language, this diamond was discovered at a mine in India. It is of the finest white color, and made its way from a Hindu temple eventually to the Crown of Queen Elizabeth in 1850.

The Orlov Diamond: Discovered in India at an unknown date, this jewel retains its traditional Indian rose-style cut. The Orlov, which weighs in at 189.62 carats and is white with a faint bluish-green color, now rests in the Kremlin in Russia.

The world’s most famous diamonds all have intriguing stories behind their discoveries. However, a diamond prospector doesn’t need to find a diamond to strike it rich: check out the infographic story of Diamond Fields, a diamond company that ended up finding and auctioning off one of the world’s richest nickel deposits for billions.

Original graphic by: Gear Jewellers

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.
Continue Reading
Comments

Real Assets

Visualizing the Size of Mine Tailings

This infographic is a unique look at the estimated 217 billion m³ of mine tailings around the world.

Published

on

Mine Tailings

Visualizing the Size of Mine Tailings

On January 25th, 2019, a 10-meter tall wave traveling 120 km/h, washed 10 million m3 of mining waste from the Brumadinho tailings dam over the Brazilian countryside killing somewhere between 270 and 320 people.

This was a manmade disaster, made from mining the materials we use daily. Every copper wire in your house, steel frame in an EV, or any modern appliance comes from mining.

Mining leaves behind waste in the form of tailings stored in dams or ponds around the world. This infographic takes a look at the estimated size of one part of this waste, tailings, visualized next to the skyline of New York City as a benchmark.

Quantifying Mining’s Material Impact

In the wake of the Brumadinho tailings failure, the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) began a review with institutional investors and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to survey tailings facilities around the world.

The Global Tailings Review tracked a total of 1,743 unique facilities containing 44,540,000,000 m3 of tailings. This dataset represents only 30.2% of global commodity production.

However, the review estimated the total number of active, inactive, and closed facilities is around 8,500. If we use the assumptions for the 1,743 estimate to calculate for the 8,500 facilities, a total of 217,330,652,000 m3 of tailings are in storage globally.

What are Tailings?

Not all rock that comes out of the ground is metal. Miners find, remove, and refine rocks that carry a small amount of metal we need.

According to the USGS, 72 billion tonnes of material produced just over 10 billion tonnes of ore. Only 14% mined material makes it to processing for metals.

Waste rock (tonnes)Material Sent to Mill (tonnes)Ore Produced (tonnes)Tailings (tonnes)
72,000,000,00018,800,000,00010,180,000,0008,850,000,000

Tailings are what is left over after mills separate the metal from the mined rock. The processed material “tailings” comes from the “tail” end of a mining mill and comprise fine particles mixed with water forming a slurry. Mining companies will store this waste in dams or ponds.

Not All Minerals Are Equal: Tailings Contribution by Commodity

Not all minerals are equal in their contribution to tailings. The grade, quantity, and the process to extract the valuable metals affect each metal’s material impact.

Mineral% Contribution to Global Tailings
Copper46%
Gold21%
Iron9%
Coal8%
Phosphate4%
Lead and Zinc3%
Nickel2%
Platinum Group Elements1%
Bauxite1%
Uranium<1%
Chromium<1%
Molybdenum<1%
Tin<1%
Vanadium<1%
Manganese<1%
Niobium<1%
Rare Earths<1%
Lithium<1%
Other minerals1%
Total100%

A renewable future will be mineral intensive and will inevitably produce more mining waste, but growing awareness around mining’s true cost will force companies to minimize and make the most of their waste.

Turning a Liability into an Asset

While tailings are waste, they are not useless. Researchers know there remains economic value in tailings. Natural Resources Canada estimated that there is $10B in total metal value in Canadian gold mining waste.

Rio Tinto has produced borates from a mine in the Mojave Desert which has left behind more than 90 years’ worth of tailings. The company was probing the tailings for gold and discovered lithium at a concentration higher than other U.S. projects under development.

According to UBC’s Bradshaw Initiative for Minerals and Mining professor Greg Dipple, the mining industry could help society store carbon. For over a decade, he has researched a process in which tailings naturally draws CO₂ from the air and traps it in tailings.

A Material World

While the majority of mining companies manage tailing dams safely, the issue of the material impacts of mining on Earth remains.

Mining of metal has grown on average by 2.7% a year since the 1970s, and will continue to grow. The importance of the size of tailings is critical to address proactively, before it comes rushing through the front door, as it did in Brazil.

Continue Reading

Real Assets

Visualizing the $2.9B Money Flow into Gold Exploration

This infographic tracks $2.87B from 425 transactions for gold projects in 41 countries between February 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021.

Published

on

Gold Exploration

Visualizing the $2.9B Money Flow into Gold Exploration

In 2020, the price of gold reached multi-year highs, in part to the impact of COVID-19 shutdowns. This renewed interest in gold spurred the plans of many gold exploration and development projects around the world.

This infographic uses data from Mining Intelligence which tracked the $2.87 billion from 425 transactions for gold projects in 41 countries between February 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021.

Gold Financings, by Country

Five countries accounted for 75% of the money raised for top gold projects around the world.

Canada attracted the most with $965 million or roughly 34% of all the money raised for gold exploration and development.

CountryAmounts ($USD)Number of Transactions
Canada$965,066,856180
Mexico$389,087,53425
Australia$291,040,97743
United States$255,563,60782
Chile$253,711,4272
Mali$85,728,40213
Guatemala$75,939,9824
Colombia$71,389,2294
Burkina Faso$58,937,8522
Greenland$54,739,5441
Fiji$44,024,2243
Nigeria$40,660,7351
Ivory Coast$37,608,0314
Argentina$30,678,6215
Brazil$30,292,1439
Nicaragua$29,040,3614
Tanzania$22,215,1782
Finland$2,106,07402
Mongolia$15,120,7001
Ghana$14,894,3364
Kyrgyzstan$13,651,8011
Namibia$13,041,6211
Ecuador$8,644,9751
Bulgaria$6,879,4501
Japan$6,569,7422
Guyana$6,282,1342
United Kingdom$4,796,9833
Dem. Republic of the Congo$4,528,4501
Peru$4,436,3356
Sudan$4,066,4841
Cameroon$3,252,9564
Papua New Guinea$1,737,9032
Serbia$1,478,5791
Kenya$1,288,0411
Spain$1,074,2111
Dominican Republic$992,2521
Guinea$387,4831
Kazakhstan$334,7331
Honduras$296,0961
Indonesia$213,8351
South Africa$102,9591
Total$2,870,857,503425

In second place, Mexico attracted $389 million or 14% of total exploration dollars raised while Australia with $291 million (10%) is in third place.

The United States comes in fourth place with $256 million or 9% of global gold exploration dollars. Chile on the fifth spot received $254 million (9%) with one project attracting the largest amount of any on the list.

Top 10 Financings by Gold Project

Focusing on individual projects, Gold Fields’ Salares Norte project in Chile received $252 million for the largest financing of the period. The company started construction this year, after a delicate operation to remove endangered chinchillas from the site.

Silvercrest’s Las Chispas project in Mexico’s Sonora state received $228.9 million, giving it the second largest sum. According to the company, the property hosts 94.7 million ounces of silver equivalent (AgEq) in proven and provable reserves.

PropertiesLocationAmount ($USD)Company
Salares Norte🇨🇱 Chile$251,845,426
Gold Fields Ltd.
Las Chispas🇲🇽 Mexico$228,858,469SilverCrest Metals Inc.
Windfall Lake🇨🇦 Canada$130,539,783Osisko Mining Inc.
Blackwater🇨🇦 Canada$129,712,140
Artemis Gold Inc.
Magino🇨🇦 Canada$108,128,440Argonaut Gold Inc.
Dargues Reef🇦🇺 Australia$96,500,680Aurelia Metals Ltd
Cariboo🇨🇦 Canada$95,460,630Osisko Development Corp.
Marmato🇨🇴 Colombia$66,116,989Aris Gold Corp.
Cerro Blanco🇬🇹 Guatemala$65,632,958Bluestone Resources Inc.
Mount Morgans🇦🇺 Australia$63,179,600Dacian Gold Ltd.

Gold is Canada’s most valuable mined mineral and the next 3 projects on the list show this priority. Osisko Mining’s Windfall Lake project in Quebec is third ($130 million), Artemis Gold’s Blackwater mine ($130 million) in British Columbia is the fourth, and Argonaut’s Magino project in Ontario ($108 million) the fifth.

The analysis found that more than half of the money raised (57%), went to 63 gold projects to advance economic studies – from scoping studies or preliminary economic assessments through to bankable feasibility studies and permitting.

A total of 71% of the projects were in the early stages of exploration, but they only accounted for about 25% of the total capital raised during the period.

Gold Going Forward

With $2.9 billion in capital going into gold projects around the world, the gold industry has big plans. These financings represent opportunities for host countries’ economies and their workers, along with more gold for investors to buy.

Continue Reading

Subscribe

Receive updates when new visuals go live:

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

Latest News

The latest news from our sponsors:

Popular