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The History of Metals

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The History of Metals

The History of Metals

We have documented the history if individual metals before and we have also visualized their annual production. However, we have not seen all of the metals on one timeline before such as in this infographic.

Worth noting is gold’s prominence ever since the beginning of history. Because the yellow metal is one of the rare elements that can be found in native form (such as nuggets), it was used by the earliest of our ancestors.

Comparatively, it is only recently that the technology has advanced to allow us to discover or extract the rest of the metals on today’s periodic table. For example, even though we knew of titanium as early as 1791, it was relatively useless all the way up until the 1940’s because of its metallurgy. In the 20th century, scientists advanced a way to remove the impurities, making it possible to get the strong and hard titanium we know today.

Another standout fact is that it took all the way until the early 19th century for two very important elements to be discovered. Both are not found free in nature very often and thus slipped detection for many centuries. Silicon, which actually makes up 26% of the earth’s crust, was discovered in 1823. Then in 1827, aluminum was discovered – we now know today that it is the most common metal in the earth’s crust (it’s actually 1200X more abundant than copper).

Original graphic from: Makin Metals

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Visualizing the Genealogy of Exploration Success

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Mineral Exploration Success

Visualizing the Genealogy of Exploration Success

In the last decade, 63% of all mineral discoveries in the Western world were made by junior explorers. These small companies are the vision of a dedicated few.

It is the people that make a great company, and it is great explorers that make great discoveries. This infographic sponsored by SKRR Exploration shows the incredible experience and knowledge of two leaders in mineral exploration brought together in one new venture.

Two Paths to Exploration Success

According to the common adage, overnight success stories take a long time. Ron Neolitzky and Ross McElroy have traveled two different paths but along their route, they have uncovered vast amounts of mineral wealth in Canada.

Ronald Netolitzky Ross McElroy
  • 1964-67: Graduated from the University of Alberta with a B.Sc and M.Sc. in Geology.
  • 1985: Became President of Delaware Resources and acquired the Snip property.
  • 1986: Struck a gold discovery at the Snip property, which produced 1Moz of gold over its lifetime.
  • 1988: Invested in Consolidated Stikine Resources and drill-tested Eskay Creek, which would go on to produce 3.3Moz of gold and 160Moz of silver over its lifetime.
  • 1990: Sold Eskay Creek stake to International Corona for $67/share as part of an acquisition.
  • 1990: Received the Bill Dennis Prospector of the Year Award.
  • 1993: Purchased 100% of the Brewery Creek property as president of Loki Gold.
  • 1996: Transformed Brewery Creek into a heap-leach operation.
  • 1996: Merged Loki Gold with Baja Gold and Viceroy Gold to create an entity with an annual production of 200Koz of gold.
  • 1996: Received AME’s E.A. Scholz Award for discovery and development achievements.
  • 2003: Acquired the Galore Creek property for Spectrum Gold, later merged with NovaGold Resources and partially sold to Teck Resources for $275M.
  • 2007: Oversaw Yamana Gold’s $577 million acquisition of Viceroy Resources as chairman.
  • 2010: Oversaw Osisko Mining’s $372 million acquisition of Brett Resources as chairman.
  • 2015: Inducted into the Canadian Mining Hall of Fame.
  • 1987: Graduated from the University of Alberta with B.Sc. in Geology.
  • 1987: Joined uranium giant Cameco and worked on the McArthur River discovery in Saksatchewan’s Athabasca Basin, which is now the world’s largest uranium mine.
  • 1989: Worked with French nuclear Company Cogema (now Orano) on the Shea Creek uranium discovery in Saskatchewan, Canada.
  • 1990-99: Managed the Hope Bay Gold Project with BHP Minerals, discovering three high-grade gold deposits.
  • 2007: Joined Fission Energy as VP of Exploration before rising to the rank of COO.
  • 2009: Led the technical team that discovered the high-grade J Zone uranium deposit at Waterbury Lake and sold to Denison Mines.
  • 2012: Used airborne radiometrics and radon in-lake survey technology to discover the Triple R uranium deposit on the Patterson Lake Property, with an indicated resource of 102M lbs of U3O8.
  • 2013: Received the Mining Person of the Year Award from the Northern Miner.
  • 2014: Received the Bill Dennis Award for a Canadian discovery.

This combined experience is coming to bear in one company to uncover Canada’s next mineral frontier.

Bringing Experience Together: SKRR Exploration

SKRR brings together the experience of two great explorers to uncover the next mineral frontier, Saskatchewan. This junior explorer is working on the next great discovery with 6 projects in the Trans-Hudson geological corridor

  • Father Lake Nickel Project: Copper, Nickel
  • Ithingo Project: Gold
  • Irving Project: Gold
  • Cathro Project: Gold
  • Leland Project: Gold
  • Olson Project: Gold
  • Manson Bay: Gold

With a proven location and legacy of exploration success, SKRR is ready to unlock the next mineral frontier in Saskatchewan and continue the tradition of a dedicated few uncovering the next great discovery.

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The World’s Top 10 Gold Mining Companies

Together, the world’s top 10 gold mining companies account for roughly 22% of the share of the total gold market.

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Top 10 Gold Mining Companies

The World’s Top 10 Gold Mining Companies

Unlike paper currency or many other types of assets, gold has maintained its value throughout the ages.

First used by cultures in modern-day Eastern Europe in 4,000 BC to make decorative objects, the metal today represents a global business with operations on every continent, except Antarctica.

The industry is dominated by a select group of majors.

Together, the world’s top 10 gold miners produced 27.48 million ounces (Moz) in 2020, worth approximately $48 billion, according to data from Mining Intelligence.

North America Leading

At a country level, China is the largest producer in the world accounting for around 11% of total global production.

However, no Chinese company appears among the top miners.

RankCompanyHeadquartersCountry2020 Production (Moz)
1Newmont DenverUSA 🇺🇸5.88
2Barrick GoldTorontoCanada 🇨🇦4.84
3PolyusMoscowRussia 🇷🇺2.87
4AngloGold AshantiJohannesburgSouth Africa 🇿🇦2.81
5Kinross GoldTorontoCanada 🇨🇦2.38
6Gold FieldsJohannesburgSouth Africa 🇿🇦2.13
7Newcrest MiningMelbourneAustralia 🇦🇺2.06
8Agnico EagleTorontoCanada 🇨🇦1.73
9Polymetal InternationalSt. PetersburgRussia 🇷🇺1.40
10Harmony GoldJohannesburgSouth Africa 🇿🇦1.38

At the top of the gold mining companies list, Colorado-based Newmont has ownership of mines in Nevada, Colorado, Ontario, Quebec, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Australia, Ghana, Argentina, Peru, and Suriname.

As the only American company on the list, Newmont produces 21% of the yellow metal poured by the top companies.

Canada, which is known for its mining industry, has three companies on the list; Barrick Gold, Kinross Gold, and Agnico Eagle, producing 32% combined.

Russia, which is expected to become the world’s top producer by 2029, has two companies ranked. Together, Polyus and Polymetal represent 15% of the top miners’ production.

The top 10 players account for ~22% of the total market share, which is anticipated to grow due to increased merger and acquisition activities.

Wealth and Luxury

Over six and a half thousand years after its discovery, more than 90% of the gold mined annually is destined for jewelry, bullion, and coins.

  • Jewelry: 36.83%,
  • Investment: 46.64%,
  • Central banks: 8.58%,
  • Technology: 7.95%

The metal is also used in dentistry, as it is the best material for fillings and crowns since it is easy to insert, and is non-reactive with the human body.

Golden Future

Global production fell by 1% in 2020, the first decline in a decade, according to the World Gold Council.

Some analysts argue the world has reached “peak gold” – which means that the maximum rate of extraction has passed and the production of the metal will continue to fall until, eventually, mining for it shall cease entirely.

Demand, however, shows no sign of slowing down as the golden metal remains firmly synonymous with security, stability, and longevity.

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